Kxì! Here you can find a collection of exercises about various topics. The exercises build up on each other, so if you do for example the exercses from the adjective section, they might also include grammar from previous section. Also note that there are often several solutions to translate one sentence. In the most cases I will only offer one possible solution. If you are unsure if your solution maybe also is correct, don't hesitate and ask in the learner chat in discord!
Writing Prompts | Simple Sentences | Pronouns | Transitivity & -l/-t | Indirect Objects with -ru | Lu vs. 'efu vs. Tok | Plural & Lenition | Adjectives & Subclauses with a | Possession: -yä & lu + -ru | Questions | Adverbs | Adpositions | Negation | f-words | Modifying si-verbs | Infixes | Conjunctions | Topical | Numbers | Vocabulary Exercises
1. Writing Prompts
Everyone always says, you have to use the language to learn it. But what if you don’t feel confident enough to start writing with people in Na’vi?
1.1 15 ideas you could use to practice your writing with
- a) Introduce yourself. What’s your name? What are your hobbies?.
- b) What have you done today? What do you plan to do tomorrow? What have you done yesterday?
- c) You have one day on Pandora: What will you do?
- d) Describe your last vacation.
- e) Describe a normal day in your life.
- f) Translate your favorite recipe into Na’vi. Try to use no english words, describe the missing words instead (Instead of carrot you could for example write ngima fkxen atxeptun, a long orange vegetable)
- g) Translate your favorite song into Na’vi.
- h) Describe your favorite scene from the Avatar movie in Na’vi.
- i) What is your favorite book/movie/tv show? Describe what it is about.
- j) Describe your family.
- k) What is your favorite animal? Describe it and write down why you like it.
- l) If you were given three wishes, what would you wish for? Why?
- m) Immagine you would be the eyktan of your society. What would you change?
- n) Why are you learning Na’vi?
- o) Which three items would you take to an lonely island, and why?
- p) Describe the last dream you remember
Obviously, I cannot give solutions for this exercise as everyone will write another text. But feel free to send me (Tekre#3259) your text on discord - my DMs are open!
1.2 Some additional tips
- a) You have a pet, a stuffed animal you like or just a potted plant which stands in your room? Start talking Na’vi to it.
- b) If you are bored, just look around a bit and try to describe what you see in Na’vi. You can write that down, talk to yourself or just think.
- c) In the Kelutral Discord Server the Eytukan bot asks two question in Na'vi every day, try to answer them!
- d) Get 5 to ten random Na'vi words. Both, the Reykunyu bot in Kelutral and the Fwew bot in the Learn Na'vi Discord Server have a command to get random words! Use these words to write a short story. It doesn't need to make sense, it is about the writing and getting creative!
- e) If you write a diary, try to do that in Na’vi. If you don't write a diary, start writing a diary
2. Simple Sentences
2.1 Translate the following sentences to English.
- a) Yerik yom. The/A Yerik eats.
- b) Tìran ioang. The/An animal walks.
- c) Taronyu txur lu. The/A hunter is strong.
- d) Kä oe. I go.
- e) Kilvan tswesya si. The/A river flows.
- f) ‘eveng slu taronyu. The/A child becomes a hunter. Or: The hunter becomes a child. Due to free word order this is a possible, even if of course unlikely translation.
- g) Lu ioang. There is an animal.
- h) Nantang yom. The/A nantang eats.
- i) Tul hufwe. The wind runs. The Na'vi way of saying that it is windy.
- j) Hufwe 'eko. The wind attacks. The na'vi way of saying that it is extremely windy.
- k) Zup tompa. The rain falls. The Na'vi way of saying that it is raining.
- l) 'eko tompa. The rain attacks. The Na'vi way of saying that it is raining a lot.
- m) Tsawke lrrtok si. The sun smiles. The Na'vi way to say that the sun is shining!
2.2 Translate the following sentences to Na'vi.
- a) I am drunk. Oe rou. / Rou oe.
- b) He walks. Po tìran. / Tìran po.
- c) The cat drinks. Palulukantsyìp näk. / Näk palulukantsyìp.
- d) You sleep. Nga hahaw. / Hahaw nga.
- e) The house burns. Kelku palon. / Palon kelku.
- f) She is fast. Po lu win. / Win lu po. / Lu po win. / ...
3.1 Fill the table with pronouns. Note: Not every cell needs to be filled, because there is not for every pronoun an incluse and an exclusive form!
1st person (I/we)
2nd person (you)
3rd person ((s)he)/they)
3.2 What is the difference between the inclusive and the exclusive forms?
'Inclusive' means that the person you are talking to is included, while 'exclusive' means they are not. So for example, if I talk to you about something we two did together, I would use the inclusive 'oeng', while when I would talk to you about what I did together with another person, I would use the exclusive 'moe' because you are not part of the 'we'.
3.3 Which pronoun do you need in the following situations?
- a) You are swimming with two friends. Another person appears and asks you, what you are doing. You say that you and your two friends are swimming. pxoe
- b) You are talking with another person and want to propose that you two could eat together. oeng
- c) You see four of your friends and ask them what they are doing. aynga
- d) You tell someone something about a group of people. (ay)fo
- e) You want to propose to your 4 colleagues that you all could meet for a drink after work. aoeng/awnga
4. Transitivity, -l & -t
4.1 Try to answer without looking into the dictionary: Is the verb transitive or intransitive? Build a sentence with every transitive verb. You don't need to write sentences with the intransitive verbs!
a) fwew vtr
b) nume vin
c) sunu vin
d) nìn vtr
e) yom vtr
f) tìng vtr
g) pey vin
h) omum vtr
i) ftem vtr
j) tìran vin
k) laro si vin
l) wìntxu vtr
4.2 Do you remember...
- a) ... what "transitive" actually means? A verb is transitive if it has the ability to take a direct object. All transitive verbs in Na'vi can still be used as intransitive verbs too, so without a direct object.
- b) ... what rule applies to the so called si-verbs? All si-verbs are intransitive!
- c) ... what case endings you use with transitive verbs? Subject: -l/-ìl, Direct Object: -t(i)/-it
- d) ... what word order the Na'vi langusage uses in such a sentence with subject, verb and direct object? Word order in such simple sentences is completely free! Because of the case endings, we don#t need word order.
4.3 Mark subject and object in the following sentences.
- a) Ngal tsrayti tok. Subject: ngal, Object: tsray - You are in the village.
- b) Pukti ngal fwew. Subject: ngal, Object: pukti - You search for the book.
- c) Taronyut tspang smarìl. Subject: smarìl, Object: taronyut - The prey kills the hunter.
- d) Yom fkxenit ngal. Subject: ngal, Object: fkxenit - You eat vegetables.
- e) Tsat oel omum. Subject: oel, Object: tsat - I know that.
4.4 Translate the following sentences to English.
- a) Taronyul yerikit nongspe’. The hunter pursue the yerik.
- b) Awngal yune pamtseoti. We all listen to music.
- c) Taronyul taron smarti. The hunter hunts the prey.
- d) Yom wutsoti oel. I eat the meal.
- e) Nantangtsyìpìl nìn zize’ti. The dog watches the wasp.
4.5 Translate the following sentences to Na’vi.
- a) The dog searches for food. Fwew syuveti nantangtsyìpìl.
- b) The man says a word. Plltxe tutanìl lì'ut.
- c) I find a flower. Oel run syulangti.
- d) They follow the animal. Ioangit (ay)fol nong.
- e) The leader kills the enemy. Tspang kxututi eyktanìl.
4.6 Find the mistakes in the following sentences.
- a) Yerik palulukanìl taron. Yerik -> Yerikit/Yerikti
- b) Oeti inan pukìl. Oel inan pukit.
- c) Taronyu taron ioang. Taronyul taron ioangit. / Taronyut taron ioangìl.
- d) Tse’al oe ngati. Tse'a oel ngati. Verbs can never take case endings!
- e) Oel nume lì’fyati. Lì'fyari oe nume. / Oel ftia lì'fyati. 'nume' is intransitive and therefore cannot use -l/-t. We use the topical -(ì)ri instead.
5. Indirect Objects with -ru
5.1 -ru vs. -l & -t: Fill out the gaps with -l, -t & -ru. Note: Not every gap needs to be filled! Some sentences have two possible solutions.
- a) Ngal ioangit taron//. You hunt the animal. Alternative solution: Ngat(i) ioangìl taron. - The animal hunts you.
- b) Oel fya'ot(i) ngar(u) wìntxu. I show you the way. Alternative solution: Oer(u) fya'ot(i) ngal wìntxu. - You show me the way.
- c) Peyral// pey//. Peyral waits.
- d) Ngal tsrayti tok//. You are in the village.
- e) Nga// srung// si// oer(u). You help me. Alternative solution: Ngar(u) srung si oe. - I help you.
- f) Po// skxawng// lu//. He/She is a moron.
- g) Mokrit stawm// oel. I hear a voice.
- h) Lom// lu// pxefor(u) nga//. The three of them miss you. Alternative solution: Lom lu pxefo ngar(u). - You miss the three of them.
5.2 Translate the following sentences to English.
- a) Awngal pxeforu fmawnit peng. We all tell the three of them the news.
- b) Oengaru sunu tompa. We two like rain. / lit. Rain is pleasing to us two.
- c) Po lom lu nantangtsyìpur. The dog misses him/her. / lit. He/she is missed to the dog.
- d) Fo pxoengur kaltxì si. They greet the three of us.
- e) Ngal oeru pukit tìng. You give me the book.
- f) Sa’nokìl oeru fya’ot wìntxu. The mother shows me the way.
- g) Nga yawne lu oeru. I love you. / lit. You are beloved to me.
- h) Oeru fko syaw Neytiri. My name is Neytiri. / lit. One calls to me Neytiri.
5.3 Translate the following sentences to Na’vi.
- a) I give the animal food. Ioangur oel syuveti tìng.
- b) He teaches me the language. Kar lì'fyat oeru pol.
- c) The hunter trusts him. Po taronyuru lu mal.
- d) She has a bow. Poru lu tsko.
- e) We clean the house. Awnga kelkuru laro si.
- f) For me this exercise is easy. Oeru fìtskxekeng ftue lu.
6. Lu vs. tok vs. ‘efu
6.1 Are the following sentences correct or wrong? If a sentence is wrong, correct it.
- a) Tsayerik lu win. The sentence is correct!
- b) Lu väng oe. The sentence is wrong: 'efu oe väng.
- c) Pol taronyuti ‘efu. Wrong: Po taronyu lu.
- d) Tok fol kelkuti. This sentence is perfectly fine! No need to correct it.
- e) Lu oe fìtsenge. Wrong: Tok oel fìtsengti.
6.2 Insert lu, ‘efu or tok.
- a) Lu lor syulang. The flower is beautiful.
- b) Taronyu poe lu. She is a hunter.
- c) Oe 'efu spxin. I feel sick. Note: It is also possible to use lu here - being sick vs. feeling sick.
- d) ‘orati payoangìl tok. The fish is in the lake.
- e) Tìohakxit oel 'efu. I am hungry.
6.3 Translate the following sentences to Na’vi. Explain why you have chosen lu/’efu/tok
- a) The air is cold. Ya lu wew. Air = cold -> we need 'lu'!
- b) Here are animals. Fìtsengti tok ayioangìl. The animals occupy space here -> we need 'tok'!
- c) The forest is big. Apxa lu na'rìng. Forest = big -> we need 'lu'!
- d) I am hungry. 'efu ohakx oe. / 'efu oel tìohakxit. Hunger is something we feel -> we need ''efu'!
- e) The hunter is in the forest. Taronyul na'rìngti tok. The hunter occupies space in the forest -> we need 'tok'!
7. Plural & Lenition
7.1 Bild all three plural forms for the following words.
a) yayo (bird) meyayo, pxeyayo, ayyayo
b) 'rrta (planet Earth)me'rrta, pxe'rrta, ay'rrta
c) tsmuk (sibling) mesmuk, pxesmuk, (ay)smuk
d) nari (eye) menari, pxenari, aynari
e) tstxo (name) mestxo, pxestxo, (ay)stxo
f) kxeyey (mistake) mekeyey, pxekeyey, (ay)keyey
g) pam (sound) mefam, pxefam, (ay)fam
h) na'rìng (forest) mena'rìng, pxena'rìng, ayna'rìng
i) 'eveng (child) meveng, pxeveng, (ay)eveng
j) koren (rule) mehoren, pxehoren, (ay)horen
k) uvan (game) meuvan, pxeuvan, ayuvan
l) ikran (banshee) meikran, pxeikran, ayikran
7.2 Translate the following sentences to English.
- a) Pxeylan rol. Three friends sing.
- b) Ayfkxen ftxìlor lu. Vegetables are delicious.
- c) Sunu ayikranur payoang. The ikrans like fish.
- d) Fayoangit tse’a oel. I see fish.
- e) Menantangìl ayyerikit nongspe’. Two nantangs pursue the yeriks.
7.3 Translate the following sentences to Na’vi.
- a) The three hunters hunt the animals. Taron ayioangit pxesaronsul.
- b) I read two books. Oel mefukit inan.
- c) They eat berries. Fasukit fol yom.
- d) The mother shows the three children plants. Sa'nokìl pxevengur ayewllit wìntxu.
- e) The children take care of three plants. Vewng pxewllti ayevengìl.
7.4 Look up the following two words. What is special about them?
- a) fil This could be either the singular word fil which means 'toy', or it could be the short plural of pil, which means 'facial stripe'. So fil, based on context can have two meanings: A child's toy, or facial stripes.
- b) pxen Again this word can have two different meanings: Either an item of clothing (singular), or the trial of 'en, 'guess', so 'three guesses'.
8. Adjectives & Subclauses with a
8.1 Translate the following noun phrases to Na’vi.
- a) The tall moron tsawla skxawng / skxawng atsawl
- b) The clean house laroa kelku / kelku alaro
- c) The beautiful flower (nar)lora syulang / syulang a(nar)lor
- d) The yellow, big eyes rima menari atsawl
- e) The strong hunter txura taronyu / taronyu atxur
- f) The book that I read puk a oel inan / inan oel a puk
- g) The animal that I see ioang a tse'a oel / oel tse'a a ioang
- h) The animal that sees me ioang a oeti tse'a / tse'a oet a ioang
- i) The interesting story vur a eltur tìtxen si / eltur tìtxen si a vur
- j) The food that I like syuve a oeru sunu / sunu oeru a syuve
- k) The person which has a bow tute a poru lu tsko / poru lu tsko a tute
8.2 Translate the following sentences to English.
- a) Oel tsawla yerikit nìn. I watch the big yerik.
- b) Mengal pukit a eltur tìtxen si inan. You two read the interesting book.
- c) Nga laro si kelkuru atsewtx. You clean the dirty house.
- d) Eana yayo a lu hì’i sì lor tswayon. The blue bird which is small and beautiful flies.
- e) Oeru lu sìltsana tsko a pol oeru tìng. I have a good bow which s/he gave to me.
- f) Oel inan a puk lu ngaru. You have the book that I read.
- g) Oel tse’a a nantangìl taron yerikit. The nantang that I see hunts the yerik.
- h) Oel fwew fìpot a frrfen oel trram. I search this person that I visited yesterday.
- i) Tsawla palulukanit a poti ‘eko trram oel fwew. I search the big thanator that attacked him/her yesterday.
- j) Fayyerik a tul lu win. These yeriks which run are fast.
- k) Fayfuk a eltur tìtxen si lu oeru. I have these interesting books.
- l) Taronyuru a pey layon sì hì’i lu a tskoti pol a ‘efu tìohakxit tìng ulte nìn poti. S/he who is hungry gives the bow which is small and black to the hunter who waits, and watches him/her.
- m) Lemweypeya taronyu asìltsan lu a Neytiri pey. Neytiri, who is a good, patient hunter, waits.
- n) Narlora Neytiril a lu taronyu asìltsan oeru oel ke tslam a fìlì'fyati kar. The beautiful Neytiri who is a good hunter teaches me the language which I do not understand.
8.3 Translate the following sentences to Na’vi.
- a) I look at the big, blue animal. Oel tsawla ioangti aean nìn.
- b) The fast hunter which is strong and smart eats fruit. Mautiti yom wina taronyul a lu txur sì kanu.
- c) The small, young child sees a beautiful, yellow flower. Hì'ia 'evengìl a'ewan narlora syulangti arim tse'a.
- d) He shows the big green plant to the old man. Pol tsawla 'ewllit aean koaktanur.
- e) The person who waits gives me the black bow which I like. Tutel a pey oeru layona tskoti a sunu oeru tìng.
9. Possession: -yä & lu + -ru
9.1 Translate the following sentences to English.
- a) Fìtseng lu awngeyä! This place is our!
- b) Fwew oel ngeyä sa’nokit. I search for your mother.
- c) Peyä sa’nokä tsmukan lu taronyu asìltsan. The brother of his/her mother is a good hunter.
- d) ‘evengìl wìntxu tsmukur oeyä pxerelit peyä. The child shows his/her three pictures to my sibling.
- e) Pol syuvet peyä yom. S/he eats his/her food.
9.2 Translate the following sentences to Na’vi.
- a) I put on my black shoes. Oel mehawnventi alayon yemstokx.
- b) You see your mother. Ngal ngeyä sa'nokit tse'a.
- c) I eat their meal. Oel wutsoti feyä yom.
- d) They have many cute cats. Pxaya palulukantsyìp ahona lu foru.
- e) My sister’s children are young. Oeyä tsmukeyä eveng lu 'ewan.
- f) I want your bow. Tskoti ngeyä oel new.
- g) I hear his voice. Stawm oel mokrit peyä.
- h) The ideas that he has are good. Aysäfpìl a poru lu sìltsan lu.
- i) She rides my Pa’li. Pa'lit oeyä pol makto.
- j) They read my fathers book. Inan fol pukit sempulä oeyä.
9.3 Fill the gaps with -yä, -ru, -l & -t. Not every gap needs to be filled!
- a) Sa’nokìl fwew// pukit oeyä. The mother searches for my book.
- b) Lu// meforu puk// a// tsmukìl oeyä inan//. The two of them have the book which my sibling reads.
- c) Sunu// nantangur sur// payoangä. The Nantang likes the taste of the fish.
- d) Taronyuru oel tìng// eyktanä tstalit. I give the leader's knife to the hunter. Alternative solution: Taronyul oeru tìng eyktanä tstalit. - The hunter gives me the leader's knife.
- e) Oeru lu// fpom//. I'm fine. lit.: I have wellbeing.
10.1 Write down the correct question word and build a question with it. Try to not look them up! How are the different question words built up?
- a) Who Pesu/Tupe from tute (person) - lit.: Which person? Example sentence: Pesul wutsoti 'em fìtrr? - Who cooks the meal today?
- b) Where Pesenge/Tsengpe from tseng(e) (place) - lit.: Which place? Example sentence: Kä po pesengne? - Where does s/he go?
- c) What (action) Pehem/Kempe from kem (action) - lit.: Which action? Example sentence: Pehem si nga? - What do you do?
- d) What (thing) Peu/'upe from 'u (thing) - lit.: Which thing? Example sentence: Tsaw peu lu? - What is that?
- e) Why Pelun/Lumpe from lun (reason) - lit.: Which reason? Example sentence: Nga tsakem soli pelun? - Why did you do that?
- f) How Pefya/Fyape from fya'o (way) - lit.: Which way? Example sentence: Pol pefya taron palulukanti? - How does s/he hunt the palulukan?
- g) When Pehrr/Krrpe from krr (time) - lit.: Which time? Example sentence: Oeng ultxa si pehrr trray? - When will we meet tomorrow?
10.2 Translate the following questions to English.
- a) Fyape fol ayfayoangit taron? How do they hunt the fish?
- b) Ngaru yawne lu oe srak? Do you love me?
- c) Srake poanur sunu ayrel? Does he like pictures?
- d) New ngal fu fkxenit fu tsnganit? Do you want vegetable or meat? Choose one.
- e) Srake new ngal fkxenit fu tsnganit? Do you want vegetable or meat? Yes/No question, answer with yes if you want any of these.
- f) Kempe si nga? What do you do?
- g) Pesu eyktan lu? Who is the leader?
10.3 Translate the following questions to Na’vi.
- a) How are you? Ngaru lu fpom srak?
- b) Where are the children? Ayevengìl tok pesengti?
- c) How do you cook the vegetables? Pefya ngal ayfkxenit 'em?
- d) Why do they come? Fo za'u pelun?
- e) Which book do you read? Pefukit ngal inan?
- f) Which animals do they see? Tse'a fol payioangti?
- g) Which book do you give me? Ngal oeru pefukit tìng?
- h) Why does she love him? Pelun poeru poan yawne lu?
- i) When do we meet? Pehrr ultxa si oeng?
- j) The food is hot, right? Syuve txasom lu kefyak?
- k) Why do you hunt the palulukan? Ngal palulukanit taron pelun?
- l) Do you like fish? Srake ngaru sunu payoang?
- m) Is he a good leader? Po eyktan asìltsan lu srak?
- n) Who is the woman who waits there? Pesu lu tuté a fìtseng pey?
- o) Do you see yeriks or nantangs? Tse'a ngal fu ayyerikit fu aynantangit?
11.1 Translate the following sentences to English.
- a) Tsyeykìl tspang yerìkit nìwin Jake kills the yerik fast.
- b) Nume numeyu a ftia pxìm nìwin nìtxan. A student who studies often learns very fast.
- c) Po plltxe nìfnu nìtxan nìkeftxo. Sadly he talksvery quietly.
- d) Sempul oeru irayo si nìli. The father thanks me in advance.
- e) Nìyeyfya ayikranay tswayon. The ikran fly in a straight line.
- f) Hena ‘evil rumit nìktungzup. The child carries the ball carefully.
11.2 Translate the following sentences to Na’vi.
- a) The nantang runs fast. Nantang tul nìwin.
- b) Today the hunter eats very often. Fìtrr taronyu yom pxìm nìtxan.
- c) Finally they see more animals which silently walk. Fol nì'ul ayioangti a tìran nìk'ong tse'a nì'i'a.
- d) I completely agree. Mllte nìwotx. (/ Mllte zam mì zam.)
- e) She likes the book a lot. Sunu poru puk nìtxan.
12.1 Which of the following Adpositions cause lenition? Write your own example sentences with them.
a) hu doesn't cause lenition
b) sre causes lenition
c) fa doesn't cause lenition
d) mì causes lenition
e) ro also causes lenition
f) maw doesn' cause lenition
g) wä causes lenition
h) eo doesn't cause lenition
i) ìlä causes lenition
j) fpi causes lenition
12.2 Translate the following sentences to English.
- a) Pesutehu nga plltxe? With whom are you speaking?
- b) Awnga tswayon ikranfa ne kelku ngeyä na’rìngkxamlä. We fly with ikrans through the forest to your house.
- c) Mì sawla kelutral Na’vi kelku si. The Na'vi live in the big home tree.
- d) Ìlä sahìk po sop kelkune. According to the Tsahìk he travels home.
- e) Ro fehilvan nga taron? At which river do you hunt?
- f) Eo utral wem pohu oenga wä kutu. We two fight in front of the tree against the enemy.
- g) Oe uvan si hu hì’ia ioang ahona. I play with a small cute animal.
12.3 Translate the following sentences to Na’vi.
- a) The hunter flies with his ikran. Taronyu ikranfa peyä tswayon.
- b) I talk with you. Ngahu plltxe oe.
- c) I come from a small village. Ftu tsray ahì'i za'u oe.
- d) The palulukan which lies under a tree looks tiredly at his friend who plays with a ball. Palulukan a äo utral klltxay nìngeyn 'eylanur peyä a rumfa uvan si tìng nari.
- e) The student learns in the forest with friends about plants. Numeyu na'rìngmì nume teri ayewll eylanghu.
13.1 Translate the following sentences to English.
- a) Ke rolun ngal poti kawtseng. You didn't find him/her anywhere.
- b) Oe ke tsun yivom tsat. I cannot eat that.
- c) Ke lu awngaru ‘rrta amuve. We don't have a second earth.
- d) Ayioangur ke lu kea tsko. The animals have no bow.
- e) Kawkrr ke omum oel ke’ut kaw’it. I don't know anything ever at all.
13.2 Translate the following sentences to Na’vi.
- a) He speaks with no one. Kawtuhu po ke plltxe.
- b) I don’t clean my house today. Laro ke si oe kelkuru oeyä fìtrr.
- c) We see nothing. Ke tse'a awngal ke'ut.
- d) They haven’t eaten yet. Ke li ke yom fo.
- e) Not everybody likes chocolate. Ke fraporu ke sunu tsyoklìt.
- f) The nantang doesn’t hunt any longer. Nantang ke taron nulkrr.
- g) The yerik doesn’t hunt at all. Yerik ke taron kaw'it.
- h) Not everyone is here today. Ke frapol ke tok fìtsengti.
- i) They don't like fish because it isn't tasty. Ke sunu foru payoang taluna ke lu ftxìlor.
- j) I don't wait longer. Oe ke pey nulkrr.
- k) No one helps the old man. Koaktanur srung ke si kawtu.
- l) The students are never lazy. Kawkrr ke lu ngong aynumeyu.
14.1 Translate the following sentences to English.
- a) Oe hum luke fwa po tseri. I leave without him/her noticing.
- b) Omum oel futa ngaru sunu aysyulang atun. I know that you like red flowers.
- c) New sa’nokìl futa ngal omum futa tsranten fwa nga yawne lu por. The mother wants that you know that it is important that she loves you.
- d) Vingkap oeti fula ayfkxen lu ftxìlor nìtxan. I occurs to me that vegetables are really tasty.
- e) Fì’upxare kangay si fura po za’u. This message confirms that s/he will come.
- f) Fwa futa nga lu kanu fpìl oel ngaru sunu. You like that I think that you are smart.
- g) Futa futa fwa inan ngaru sunu fpìl oel tslam ngal. You understand that I think that you like to read.
- h) Fula futa fwa fura taw lu ean nga law si oeru sunu ngal fpìl vingkap oeti. It occurs to me that you think that I like that you make clear that the sky is blue.
14.2 Translate the following sentences to Na’vi.
- a) I like that you help her. Sunu oeru fwa nga poru srung si.
- b) I think that you are a good teacher. Fpìl oel futa nga karyu asìltsan lu.
- c) To be a good hunter requires patience. Fula slu taronyu asìltsan tìmweypeyti fngo'.
- d) That you leave destroys me. Fula hum nga ska'a oeti.
- e) I want that you hunt a Yerik. New oel futa ngal yerikit taron.
- f) I know that she likes fish. Futa poru sunu payoang omum oel.
- g) That you teach us prepares us. Fula ngal ayoeru kar hawl ayoeti.
- h) I think that she knows that he likes her. Fpìl oel futa omum poel futa poanur sunu poe.
- i) To become a good hunter needs time. Fwa slu taronyu asìltsan krrnekx.
- j) I like to swim. Sunu oeru fwa slele.
15. Modifying si-verbs
15.1 Translate the following sentences to English.
- a) Oe fìuvan alu monopoly si. I play this game which is monopoly.
- b) Tsanumeyu kea tìkxey ke si. That student doesn't make any mistakes.
- c) Po pxaya lie a eltur tìtxen si si. S/he experienced a lot of interesting things.
- d) Awnga kekem ke si. We do nothing.
- e) Tseotu tskxeru narlora ‘on si. The artist shapes the stone beautifully. / The artist gives the stone a beautiful shape.
15.2 Translate the following sentences to Na’vi.
- a) They often play beautiful music. Fo (mik)lora pamtseo si pxìm.
- b) We play a game that I like. Awnga uvan a sunu oeru si.
- c) He makes a good guess. 'en sìltsan si po.
- d) The student makes these hard exercises. Fayskxekeng angäzìk si numeyu.
16.1 Find the infix positions in the following verbs.
a) plltxe (to speak) p.lltx.e
b) nìn (to look at) n..ìn
c) za’u (to come) z.a'.u
d) wrrza’u (to come out) wrrz.a'.u
e) tslam (to understand) tsl..am
f) ‘ampi (to touch) '.amp.i
g) irayo si (to thank) irayo s..i
16.2 Tense and aspect infixes - Translate the following sentences to Na’vi.
- a) We are reading a book. Awngal pukit erinan.
- b) The dog ran through the forest. Tolul/Tamul na'rìngkamlä nantangtsyìp.
- c) He will soon give you the tool that he just used. Pol ngaru sä'ot a sìmar pol tìying.
- d) I certainly will clean my house. Laro sasyi oe kelkuru oeyä.
- e) Yesterday I saw a animal that swam in the river. Trram tse'a oel ioangit a slele kilvanmì.
- f) Sadly he stopped to study the Na'vi language. Nìkeftxo ftolang/ftamang ftivia lì'fyat pol.
16.3 Subjunctive - Translate the following sentences to Na’vi.
- a) May Eywa be with you. Eywa (livu) ngahu.
- b) I want to sleep. New hivahaw oe.
- c) Go to the village! K(iv)ä tsrayne!
- d) I can continue to try to sing. Tsun vivar fmivi rivol oe.
- e) Give me that book! Oeru t(iv)ìng pukit!
16.4 Participles - Translate the following sentences to Na’vi.
- a) The learning student does this exercise. Nusumea numeyu fìtskxekeng si.
- b) Talking animals are strange. Ayioang apuslltxe hek.
- c) They see the hunted yerik which passes by the drinking bird. Tse'a fol tawnarona yerikit a ftem yayoti anusäk.
- d) Sleeping is important. Tsranten tìhusahaw.
- e) The cooked teylu are very tasty. Ftxìlor nìtxan 'usema teylu lu.
- f) The smiling person is kind. Lrrtok-susia tute tstunwi lu.
16.5 Causative and reflexive - Translate the following sentences to Na’vi.
- a) I cause you to search for the yerik. Oel ngaru/ngafa yerikit teykaron.
- b) The person who sings washes himself. Tute a rol yäpur.
- c) You break the branch. Vulit ngal kxeykakx.
- d) I am tired, but I cause myself to learn about the Na’vi language. 'efu ngeyn oe slä lì'fyari oe näpeykume.
- e) We see each other every day. Tsäpe'a fìtsap fratrr oeng.
16.6 All infixes mixed up - Translate the following sentences to English.
- a) Oeng mäpìsyeyeiam fìtsap! We will definitely hug each other soon :D :)
- b) Aysawtute na’rìngti skalya’a. The sky people will have destroyed the forest.
- c) Trray awngal kututi kalyureiakx. Foti heykum ko! Tomorrow we will have driven out the enemies. Let's make them leave!
- d) Ke tsole’a oel kawkrr payoang a kxeykakx vulit. I've never seen a fish that breaks a branch.
- e) Fula ngaru set lereiu yawntu a poru nga ningay yawne lu oeti ‘eykefu nitram! That you now have a beloved person who really loves you makes me feel happy! :)
16.7 All infixes mixed up - Translate the following sentences to Na’vi.
- a) You made me think that riding an ikran is not fun (and I don’t like that). Ngal oeru fpeykamängìl futa fwa makto ikranti ke lu 'o'.
- b) The howling nantangs will start to look at each other. Aynantang arusonguway sngayä'i tsäpive'a fìtsap.
- c) The teacher will soon make the students understand that one has to learn often. Karyul anumeyuru futa zene fko ftivia pxìm tsleykìyam.
- d) I will have visited my mother (and I like that). Falyrrfeien sa'nokit oeye oel.
- e) They were trying to make me like fish. Fol payoangit fmalmi seykivunu oeru.
16.8 Find the mistakes and correct the sentences.
- a) Rusamikxa hì’ang Rusikxa hì'ang or Hì'ang a ramikx
- b) Po tängaron. Po tarängon.
- c) New nantang tivareion. Neiew nantang tivaron.
- d) Oel pukit eraminan. Tsranten tìhusahaw.
- e) Sngolä’i rivalpeng fìlì’ukìngit numeyu. Sngolä'i ralpiveng fìlì'ukìngit numeyu.
- f) New tsive’a oel ioangit. New tsive'a oe ioangit.
16.9 Find the root verb and translate what the verb with all the infixes means.
- a) täpeykiyeverkeiup terkup - To may cause oneself to die in the future (positive mood) - causative, reflexive, subjunctive, future, positive mood
- b) täpalmarängon taron - To have hunted oneself (negative mood) - reflexive, past, finished action, negative mood
- c) kxeykaryatsakx kxakx - To apparently case something to be breaking in the future - causative, future, ongoing action, edidential
- d) tsäpirve’eia tse'a - To may be seeing oneself :D - reflexive, ongoing action, subjunctive, positive mood
- e) tireapeykimvängkxuyo tireapängkxo - To may was causing someone to commute (spiritual context) - causative, subjuctive, past, ceremonial
17.1 Fill the gaps with sì and ulte.
- a) Oel tse’a ayioangit sì ewllit. I see animals and plants.
- b) Pol ‘em ayfkxenit ulte nga yom. S/he cooks vegetables and you eat.
- c) Oe ‘em sìyom. I cook and eat.
- d) Nga lu sevin sì kanu. You are pretty and smart.
- e) New ‘evil nantangtsyìpit sì palulukantsyìpit ulte new oel ikranti sì torukit. The child wants a nantang and a palulukan and I want an ikran and a toruk.
17.2 Translate the following sentences to English.
- a) Ngal ‘em wutsoti fte oe tsivun yivom. You cook the meal so that I can eat.
- b) ’ul nga yom set nän nga ‘ìyefu ohakx fìtxon’ong. The more you eat now the less you will feel hungry this nightfall.
- c) Zun oe tsivun tswivayon zel oe tsakem sivi fratrr. If I could fly then I would always do that.
- d) Oel tspang wätuti fteke pol skiva’a kelutralti. I kill the opponent so that s/he cannot destroy the hometree.
- e) Txo nga fìkem sivi, tsakrr oe hum. If you do this, then I leave.
- f) Krra oel ngati tse’a oel ngaru pukit tìng. When I see you I'll give you the book.
- g) Ngal yerikit taron fu srung si sa’nokur ngeyä. You hunt the yerik or help your mother.
- h) Oeru sunu payoang takrra oel tsat molay’. I like fish since I tried that.
- i) Srefwa oe hum, new pivlltxe. I want to talk before I leave.
- j) Ke tslam oel teyngta pelun fìkem si po. I don't understand why s/he did this.
- k) Lì’fya leNa’vi lu ken’aw miklor släkop ‘o’. The Na'vi language is not only beautiful (sounding) but also fun.
17.3 Translate the following sentences to Na’vi.
- a) I want a dog and a cat and you want a fish or an insect. New oel nantangtsyìpit sì palulukantsyìpit ulte ngal new payoangit fu hì'angit.
- b) If you see an animal, then hunt it. Txo tsive'a ioangit ngal, tsakrr taron tsat.
- c) When you meet her, then greet her. Krra ultxarun pot, tsakrr por kaltxì si.
- d) If I would be an ikran, then I would eat shoes. Zu livu ikran oe zel yivom hawnventi oel.
- e) The more you read the more you learn. 'ul inan nga 'ul nume nga.
- f) Today I cook vegetables or fish. 'em fkxenit fu payoangit fìtrr oel.
- g) After I hunted the yerik, I cook the food. 'em syuveti oel mawkrra tolaron yerikit.
- h) I don't know if he is at home. Ke omum oel tenygta ftxey pol kelkuti tok fuke.
- i) The Na’vi hunt because they need meat. Taron Na'vi taluna kin tsnganti.
- j) I read this writing in order to study the new words. Fìpamrelti inan oel fte ftivia mipa aylì'ut.
18.1 Translate the following sentences to English.
- a) Tsakemìri nolui po. Regarding that, s/he failed.
- b) Oeri re’o tìsraw seri. My head hurts.
- c) Fìuvanìri angäzìk zene kivanfpìl fko. I have to concentrate on that hard game.
- d) Lì’fyari leNa’vi frapo a tsari tskxekeng si tsun tsan’ivul. Everyone who practices it can become better at the Na'vi language.
- e) Furia tsaskxawngìl tsngalti ngeyä skola’a oe tsap’alute si. I apologize for that that idiot destroyed your cup.
18.2 Translate the following sentences to Na’vi.
- a) I thank you for your help. Srungìri ngeyä oe ngaru irayo si.
- b) They learn Na’vi. Lì'fyari fo nume.
- c) He agrees that learning a language takes a long time, but it is fun. Furia fwa lì'fyari nume krrnekx po mllte, slä lu 'o' nìtxan.
- d) I am afraid of big dogs. Nantangtsyìpìri atsawl oe txopu si.
- e) It is hard to concentrate on the pronunciation while speaking. Lu ngäzìk fwa lì'upamìri kanfpìl tengkrr perlltxe.
19.1 Convert the following octal numbers into decimal ones.
- a) 1448 10010
- b) 1738 12310
- c) 528 4210
- d) 438 3510
- e) 308 2410
19.2 Convert the following decimal numbers into octal ones.
- a) 6410 1008
- b) 21310 3258
- c) 16710 2478
- d) 4510 558
- e) 1210 148
19.3 Translate the following sentences to English.
- a) Lu oeru wum tìpawm azazam. I have about 4096 questions.
- b) Tsìvea tìrol solunu oeru frato. I liked the fourth song the most.
- c) Pol kxututi avomun lolätxayn. S/he defeated ten enemies.
- d) Tsasnanumultxafpi aynumeyu zene ivinan mevopeya pukit. For that course the students have to read nineteen books.
- e) Tì’eyng fraysìpawmä lu mrrvomun. The answer to all questions is 42.
19.4 Translate the following sentences to Na’vi.
- a) She has sixteen plants in her house. Lu poru 'ewll amevol kelkumì peyä.
- b) The group contains twenty-one hunters. Pongul nga' taronyut amevomrr.
- c) These are only thirty-six gifts, but last year there were thirty-seven! Tsaw nì'aw lu tsìvosìnga stxeli, slä zìsìtam lolu pum atsìvomrr!
- d) Seven books are enough. Tam puk akinä.
- e) I see fourteen yeriks which go into the forest to avoid the nine nantangs. Tse'a oel yerikit avofu a kä na'rìngnemfa fte 'ivawnìm nantangit avolaw.
20. Vocabulary Exercises
20.1 Sort the words in each list into two different logical groups.
Example: A list containing oe, nantang, nga, ilu could be sorted into animals (ilu, nantang) and pronouns (oe, nga)
- a) numeyu, karyu, tutan, ioi, hawre', 'eveng, hawnven, eyktan, hawntsyokx, ionar People: numeyu, karyu, tutan, 'eveng, eyktan | Clothing: ioi, hawre', hawnven, hawntsyokx, ionar
- b) ya, nantang, palulukan, pìwopx, tsawke, tompa, ikran, kenten, hufwe, tulkun, yrrap Weather: Ya, pìwopx, tsawke, tompa, hufwe, yrrap | Animals: nantang, palulukan, kenten, ikran, tulkun
- c) ram, sa'nok, tsmuk, na'rìng, sempul, txayo, txepram, pizayu, meitayo, 'itan Landscape: ram, na'rìng, txayo, txepram, meitayo | Family: sa'nok, tsmuk, sempul, pizayu, 'itan
- d) tompa, wiya, skxawng, txampay, pak, 'ora, vonvä', tsahey, mei, syanan Water: tompa, txampay, 'ora, mei, syanan | Profanity: wiya, skxawng, pak, vonvä', tsahey
- e) tsawke, tul, tìran, tanhì, oare, snatanhì, kä, slele, tswayon, tsawkenay Space/Sky: tsawke, tanhì, oare, snatanhì, tsawkenay | Verbs of motion: tul, tìran, kä, slele, tswayon
Coming soon, or maybe never